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RESERCH TITLE: “The impact of board characteristics of Micro Finance institutions on Performance and Risk taking”
According to IFC (International Finance Corporation) of World Bank Group “Microfinance has built a solid track record as a critical tool in the fight against poverty and has entered the financial mainstream. The rapid growth of the industry over the past 15 years has reached approximately 130 million clients according to recent estimates. Yet microfinance still reaches less than 20 percent of its potential market among the world’s three billion or more poor”.
Like any other industry, microfinance is faced with financial, operational, compliance and strategic risks. Given the nature of the markets in which MFIs operate, there are some risks, such as the risk of over-indebtedness that are more prevalent and inherent to microfinance. In addition, due to the increasing use of mobile technology, the industry is faced with data security issues and risks related to cyber crime.
Having a bank account and credit card seems normal to many people, but for more than 2.5 billion people in the developing world, it is almost unimaginable. Excluded from the formal financial sector, they have no access to savings or current accounts, credit or other basic types of financial services.
Ending this exclusion has long been seen as a way of lifting the poorest people out of poverty. Microfinance took off around 30 years ago with the launch of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, founded by the banker, economist and Nobel peace prize winner Muhammad Yunus, and was based originally on the idea of providing small loans to poor people to enable them to invest in their own livelihoods.
The concept of microfinance has gained widespread support among policymakers, and been lauded for its potential to transform lives. But it has also come under closer scrutiny in recent years, with some questions raised about the effectiveness of microloans in particular as a way of combating poverty.
Around 2.5 billion people lack access to formal financial services. Microfinance has been held up as a way to lift people out of poverty, and initially it focused on providing small loans to allow people to invest in their own livelihoods.
As we head towards a new set of development goals in 2015, there's an ongoing debate about what microfinance should look like. The sector is diversifying beyond microcredit, notably with more savings-led approaches to help the poorest people build up assets. New cross-sectoral partnerships are also emerging, offering the potential to deliver more innovation and greater scale.
Performance measure relating to MFIs is crucial for many reasons such as: to ensure donors Most MFIs attempt to meet the financial efficiency and meet the social goals, where of fund injected in Microfinance programs, also help regulators good financial performance enables the achievement of in controlling and monitoring the MFIs. Obviously good governance could help an institution to fulfil its mission, increase efficiency, risk management, and improve its ability to attract customers and investors.
This study will be emphasis on an evaluation the relationship between governance and financial performance and risk taking activities of MFIs.
II. RESERCH QUESTIONS AND IMPLICATION
I. The impact of board expertise on risk taking activities and performance of microfinance institutions.
II. The impact of board activity on the performance of microfinance institutions.
III. Board diversity and the proportion of independent directors’ impacts on the performance and risk taking activities of microfinance institutions.
Microfinance organizations face many risks that threaten their long-term viability and sustainability. Disasters and conflict cannot be controlled, but can be prepared for, and their impact minimized. Internal issues, such as credit and liquidity risk, market and pricing, operation, compliance, and legal risks can be managed. Careful screening, monitoring and evaluation, accurate reporting, and a strong credit culture combine to provide the checks and balances needed for successful risk management. (CGAP, 2017). And it is assumed that this study will investigate and advancement the ideas to extend best practice of governance as well as efficient risk and performance management of MFIs.
The study will have several policy implications. For instance, policy makers will find the study useful as a basis of formulating policies, which can be effectively implemented for best governance practices of MFIs. The management of the MFIs will find the study invaluable not only in making decisions regarding corporate governance but also efficient risk & performance management. Future researchers and academic community could use this study as a stepping stone for further studies on MFIs.
III. RESERCH INSTUTE AND SUPERVISION
Research Student name : Abdullah Al Mamoon
University : DE MONTFORT UNIVERSITY, LEICESTER
Faculty : FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND LAW
Research Supervisors : Dr Frank Kwabi
: Dr Paschal Ohalehi
Start Date : 01/10/2018
Earliest End date : 31/09/2021
IV. RESERCH STUDENT PROFILE IN BRIEF
He has over 20 years of experience in accounting & Finance. To a great extent of his career has involved serving the accounting and tax requirements of individuals, small & medium business and non-profit organizations.
He has immense expertise and he is dedicated to helping clients achieve business success by helping them establish a practical and sound tax and financial processes, also committed to delivering tax, consulting and financial services that meet each client’s unique objectives.
He is a part-qualified Chartered Certified Accountants. Mr Mamoon has come into the field of Islamic Banking & Finance since 2010 and has been awarded Masters of Arts (MA) on Islamic Banking & Finance 2012 under University of Gloucestershire – UK. Prior to that he earned his Masters of Commerce (M.Com) from National University –Dhaka, and received Masters of Business Administration (MBA) major on Accounting & Finance from Darul Ihsan University – Dhaka, He is a member of Institute of Certified Bookkeepers and Associations of Accounting Technicians.
V. RESERCH BUDGET
Year -1 Year - 2 Year - 3 Total
FUNDING / INCOME GPB GBP GBP GBP
Employment – part time 6,000 6,300 6,615 18,915
Loans 3,000 3,000 3,000 9,000
From Grants & Financial aid
to be raised 14,999 16,875 20,786 52,660
From Savings 1,000 1,000 1,000 3,000
Total FUNDING / INCOME 24,999 27,175 31,401 83,575
Tuition 4,200 4,830 5,555 14,585
Fees (class, parking, lab, clubs, etc) 600 690 794 2,084
Accommodation & Rent 4,160 4,584 5,102 13,847
Maintenance & Foods 5,240 5,876 6,252 17,368
Loan re payments 0 2500 3000 5500
Books & Journals 2,000 2,300 2,645 6,945
Computer and consumables 1,500 500 1675 3675
Supplies & Stationeries 500 575 659 1,734
Utilities (electric, water, trash) 800 920 1,058 2,778
Communications (Cell & Internet) 500 575 661 1,736
Travelling & transportation 1,500 1,000 1,500 4000
Meeting & seminars 3,000 2325 2000 7325
Other contingencies 999 500 500 1999
Total EXPENSES 24,999 27,175 31,401 83,575
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